The largest alphabets in the narrow sense include Kabardian and Abkhaz for Cyrillic , with 58 and 56 letters, respectively, and Slovak for the Latin script , with Orthography and pronunciation Main article: This anthology is an unmatched compendium of Perl lore. Ge'ez Script of Ethiopia and Eritrea Thus the primary classification of alphabets reflects how they treat vowels. The Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are also an abugida rather than a syllabary as their name would imply, since each glyph stands for a consonant that is modified by rotation to represent the following vowel. These three differ from each other in the way they treat vowels: At the other extreme are languages such as English, where the pronunciations of many words simply have to be memorized as they do not correspond to the spelling in a consistent way. The letters are arranged according to how and where they are produced in the mouth. These are the only time vowels are indicated.
More rarely, a script may have separate letters for tones, as is the case for Hmong and Zhuang. The Georgian alphabet Georgian: However this ideal is not usually achieved in practice; some languages such as Spanish and Finnish come close to it, while others such as English deviate from it to a much larger degree. The Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are also an abugida rather than a syllabary as their name would imply, since each glyph stands for a consonant that is modified by rotation to represent the following vowel. Thai has a total of 59 symbols, consisting of 44 consonants, 13 vowels and 2 syllabics, not including 4 diacritics for tone marks and one for vowel length. While Rotokas has a small alphabet because it has few phonemes to represent just eleven , Book Pahlavi was small because many letters had been conflated—that is, the graphic distinctions had been lost over time, and diacritics were not developed to compensate for this as they were in Arabic , another script that lost many of its distinct letter shapes. An example is modern Greek which may write the phoneme [i] in six different ways: Languages may fail to achieve a one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds in any of several ways: In the wider sense, an alphabet is a script that is segmental at the phoneme level—that is, it has separate glyphs for individual sounds and not for larger units such as syllables or words. For most of these scripts, regardless of whether letters or diacritics are used, the most common tone is not marked, just as the most common vowel is not marked in Indic abugidas; in Zhuyin not only is one of the tones unmarked, but there is a diacritic to indicate lack of tone, like the virama of Indic. Phonemic orthography When an alphabet is adopted or developed to represent a given language, an orthography generally comes into being, providing rules for the spelling of words in that language. These are the only time vowels are indicated. Similarly, the Italian verb corresponding to 'spell out ', compitare, is unknown to many Italians because spelling is usually trivial, as Italian spelling is highly phonemic. Today the Rotokas alphabet has only twelve letters. In alphabets in the narrow sense, on the other hand, consonants and vowels are written as independent letters. A language may represent the same phoneme with two or more different letters or combinations of letters. Finally, the downloadable audio recording will give you hints on how to increase your vocabulary effortlessly. The Book Pahlavi script, an abjad, had only twelve letters at one point, and may have had even fewer later on. Origins of the alphabet are still unknown, some Armenian and Western scholars believe it was created by Mesrop Mashtots Armenian: Such scripts are to tone what abjads are to vowels. A language may use different sets of symbols or different rules for distinct sets of vocabulary items, such as the Japanese hiragana and katakana syllabaries, or the various rules in English for spelling words from Latin and Greek, or the original Germanic vocabulary. At the other extreme are languages such as English, where the pronunciations of many words simply have to be memorized as they do not correspond to the spelling in a consistent way. For example, a comma-shaped letter represented g, d, y, k, or j. For English, this is partly because the Great Vowel Shift occurred after the orthography was established, and because English has acquired a large number of loanwords at different times, retaining their original spelling at varying levels. The numeric value runs parallel to the Greek one, the consonants without a Greek equivalent are organized at the end of the alphabet.
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