There can be various reasons for this, from the personal to the financial. So a gynephilic man is a man who likes women, that is, a heterosexual man, whereas an androphilic man is a man who likes men, that is, a gay man. With the DSM-5 , transsexualism was removed as a diagnosis, and a diagnosis of gender dysphoria was created in its place. Principle 18 of The Yogyakarta Principles , a document of international human rights law ,  opposes such diagnosis as mental illness as medical abuse. The most studied factors are biological. The term, along with gynephilia, is needed to overcome immense difficulties in characterizing the sexual orientation of transmen and transwomen. Alternatively, I use gynephilic and androphilic to refer to sexual preference for women and men, respectively. The previous version, ICD, had incorporated transsexualism, dual role transvestism, and gender identity disorder of childhood into its gender identity disorder category. Likewise, studies such as Rametti's have found that trans men have male-like white matter patterns even before using hormones , regardless of sexual orientation.
However, these studies are limited as they include a small number of tested individuals. It defined transsexualism as "[a] desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. Benjamin gave certifying letters to his MTF transsexual patients that stated "Their anatomical sex, that is to say, the body, is male. Male-to-female transsexualism has sometimes been called "Harry Benjamin's syndrome" after the endocrinologist who pioneered the study of dysphoria. With regard to genetic factors, a study by Hare reported that trans women have a longer androgen receptor gene than cis men, which is less effective at binding testosterone, potentially preventing complete masculinization of the brain prenatal androgen exposure or sensitivity, or lack thereof, is an often cited mechanism to explain observed brain-structure differences. Likewise, studies such as Rametti's have found that trans men have male-like white matter patterns even before using hormones , regardless of sexual orientation. Individuals who have undergone and completed sex reassignment surgery are sometimes referred to as transsexed individuals;  however, the term transsexed is not to be confused with the term transsexual, which can also refer to individuals who have not yet undergone SRS, and whose anatomical sex still does not match their psychological sense of personal gender identity. Biologist Bruce Bagemihl writes ".. Causes, studies, and theories[ edit ] This section is transcluded from Causes of transsexuality. Another reason for objecting to the term transsexual is the concern that it implies something to do with sexuality , when it is actually about gender identity. Harry Benjamin said in Michael Bailey , and Martin Lalumiere , who she says "have completely failed to appreciate the implications of alternative ways of framing sexual orientation. There can be various reasons for this, from the personal to the financial. In , Hirschfeld introduced the German term "Transsexualismus",  after which David Oliver Cauldwell introduced "transsexualism" and "transsexual" to English in and They are, post-op, pre-op, and non-op, respectively. Studies have also found that both androphilic and gynephilic trans women's brain function and responses are like cis women's and unlike cis men's, or are intermediate between the two. The term, along with gynephilia, is needed to overcome immense difficulties in characterizing the sexual orientation of transmen and transwomen. Beyond Benjamin's work, which focused on male-to-female transsexual people, there are cases of the female to male transsexual, for whom genital surgery may not be practical. What would be the situation after corrective surgery has been performed and the sex anatomy now resembles that of a woman? True transsexuals feel that they belong to the other sex, they want to be and function as members of the opposite sex, not only to appear as such. With the DSM-5 , transsexualism was removed as a diagnosis, and a diagnosis of gender dysphoria was created in its place. Those who are writing and researching in this area would do well to adopt his clear and concise vocabulary. The previous version, ICD, had incorporated transsexualism, dual role transvestism, and gender identity disorder of childhood into its gender identity disorder category. Unless homosexual and heterosexual are more readily understood terms in a given context, this more precise terminology will be used throughout the book. Certain brain structures in trans women have been found to be similar to cisgender women's as opposed to cis men's, and trans men's have been found to be similar to cis men's, even controlling for hormone use , which can also cause trans people's brains to become closer to those of cis people of the same gender. Principle 18 of The Yogyakarta Principles , a document of international human rights law ,  opposes such diagnosis as mental illness as medical abuse.
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